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Rev. Charles E. Coughlin (1891-1979), the Detroit "Radio Priest." During the First New Deal, Roosevelt had initially moved cautiously, being reluctant to antagonize business leaders. While programs such as the CCC and WPA helped working-class men and women, the NIRA and the AAA primarily benefited industry and those farmers who were better off. Yet despite this conservatism and cooperation with industry, the New Deal inspired criticism from both the right and the left. Coughlin, an early supporter of Roosevelt, increasingly attacked him after 1934 for not nationalizing the banks. His Sunday afternoon radio programs drew millions of listeners.